15. Castelconturbia (Blue/Yellow)   

Architect: Robert Trent Jones GF: €65-€105 W: castelconturbia.it

Robert Trent Jones Snr designed the three loops of nine at Castelconturbia with the Blue (Chestnuts) and Yellow (Pines) being the two that have been used to stage the Italian Open. The Red (Oaks) nine is slightly longer, and all three boast well-defended greens that demand accurate approach shots. The course is very tranquil and the stunning views of the Italian Alps provide a wonderful backdrop.

16. Vilamoura (Old)  

Architect: Frank Pennink GF €88-€119 W: oceanicogolf.com

Although only 40 years old, this is one of the elder statesmen of European courses. Straight driving will open up plenty of good scoring opportunities, but the greens are small and lapses in concentration will be punished. A respectful upgrade a few years back from Martin Hawtree – which included a state-of-the-art irrigation system – has ensured that this remains one of Iberia’s must-play courses.

17. Hamburg

Architect: Harry Colt/Charles Allison/John Morrison GF: €70 W: hamburgergolf-club.de

Hamburg Golf Club (often called Falkenstein) dates back more than a century, but it was not until 1930 that it relocated to this undulating, heathland course. Now too short for Tour events, it was host to the German Open, won here in 1981 by a young Bernhard Langer who thus became the first German winner in the tournament’s 70-year history.

Vilamoura

Vilamoura Old’s 16th